The WCWC laboratory has sophisticated instrumentation and equipment to measure chemical and physical water quality parameters. Some instrumentation includes total organic carbon (TOC) analyzers, titrators, jar testers and spectrophotometers.
Conventional Treatment Process
The conventional treatment pilot plant is a gravity flow, dual-train conventional treatment plant. The treatment process includes rapid mixing, flocculation, settling, rapid rate filtration and chlorination. A supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system controls and monitors the system.
Dissolved Air Flotation Plant
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a process that replaces settling tanks in a conventional treatment process. The DAF plant includes rapid mixing, flocculation, flotation and rapid rate filtration. The DAF process involves the release of bubbles from the bottom of the tank. The floc that was formed in the flocculation process attaches to the bubbles and floats to the top of the tank where it is skimmed off. A SCADA system controls and monitors the system.
The ultrafiltration membrane (UF) is a vacuum-driven process that removes particle and dissolved organics by passing water through submerged membrane fibers.
Slow Sand Filtration
Slow sand filtration (SSF) is a process where water flows through sand filter media by gravity. When the slow sand filters are established, biofilm is formed on the top layer of the sand. The majority of the particles are removed by the established biofilm. The slow sand pilot plant can be operated with or without pre-ozonation.
Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP)
Ozone is a strong oxidant that can be used for primary disinfection. It has also been shown to degrade personal care products, taste and odour compounds and other contaminants. The ozone system can also be operated as AOP with an addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
UV is an effective non-chemical primary disinfection process. UV rays can destroy bacteria, inactivate viruses and protozoa. The UV system can also be operated as AOP with the addition of hydrogen peroxide.
Greensand filters are used to remove iron and manganese from drinking water. This technology is typically used by small systems and household units.
Cartridge filters are a typical technology used to filter drinking water in small systems or homes.
Reverse osmosis is a membrane technology that removes ions and trace contaminants from water and can be used in homes or small systems. This technology is also used for desalination processes.
pH Adjustment System
The pH Adjustment system uses carbon dioxide gas to alter the pH. On the Conventional Treatment pilot plant, pH can be adjusted before rapid mixing or before ozonation.